Onion Cultivation, Previously, Onion were a wild crop in the Mediterranean region. This crop is grown in many mountainous countries in the western part of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as in Africa. Onions thrive in temperate climates from 13 ° C to 24 ° C, the ideal climate for seedlings growing and growing in the nursery is 20 ° C to 25 ° C. Onions generally require a temperature of 20 ° C to 25 ° C thrive and grow well. Extreme heat causes onions to stagnate and cannot form bulbs.
Onion is used as an ingredient to add flavor to food, and is also used as a remedy for stomach cancer, ulcers and boils.
Type of Soil Suitable for Onion Cultivation
The onion crop thrives in well-fertilized, well-drained soil (PH) in the amount of 6 – 6.8. Clay soils are unsuitable for onion crops as they do not allow bulbs to expand. So the chances of getting a crop are slim. Sandy soil is also unsuitable for the onion crop as it has no fertilizer and so the onions are very small, which makes it difficult to find suitable crops for the market.
The onion crop needs moisture throughout its growth. This crop has short roots so it needs to be watered regularly.
Types of onions
There are two common types of onions:
Indigenous onions (this variety has a light brown color).
Modern onion, This is a type of onion known as modern onion. In this group there are onions like Texas grano, Red creole, Bombay red, White granex, and Super rex.
The onion crop is divided into two groups. This is due to the need for light and its growth. The first type requires light for 8-13 hours in order to germinate and produce seeds. The second type requires light for 13-15 hours to germinate and produce seeds.
ONION GROWING PROCESS
Onions are grown using seeds that are planted in nurseries. The nursery can be up to 1 meter wide, the height depends on the size of the area you have.
You can plant onions on convex terraces (Sunken bed). This type of planting is used in an area with a water problem. The width of the embankment should be one meter.
Raising the bed on a steep slope (Raised bed) planting this used in a place with a lot of water or stagnant.
Caution: Water stagnant on onion causes garlic to rot, thus affecting yields.
Fertilizer for Onion Cultivation
You can use compost, or well-rotted compost to plant. After that you can add compost after two months. If you practice non-organic farming, you can plant using NPK fertilizer (20:10:10) after a month and a half, you apply Urea fertilizer.
Onions are a very low yielding crop with weeds. Thus, the field must be kept clean throughout the growing season until harvest.
Insects that attack onions (Onion Cultivation)
There are many types of insects that can attack onions. The following are some of the pests common to garlic crops.
These insects live on the leaf in the area bear the stem. These insects absorb water from the onion leaves and cause the leaves to have a white spot.
Side effects: it cause stunted onions and affect their growth which also affects the yield.
Nematodes: This type of worm attacks onion roots. This condition causes the onion to stagnate as it fails to absorb water and food from the soil.
Leaf minor: Attacks leaves by infiltrating the skin of the leaf and causing rashes that affect leaf performance.
Red spider mites: These insects absorb water from the leaves and cause the onions to wither.
Seedling-cutting maggots: These worms come from insects known as moths, and they attack the stems and cut them off completely.
How to deal with these pests in Onion Culivation
You can deal with these pests by doing rotational farming. Do not plant onions in the same place for long periods of time, or trace garlic crops such as leaks.
Use the best certified seeds from the company that are legally and commercially recognized. Rising at the right time; onions should not be planted during the dry season. Sown in winter and harvested in summer. Use natural pesticides, or other pesticides recommended by agricultural experts.
Diseases attacking onions
1. Purple blotch: This disease is caused by a fungus. The disease causes purple and black patches on garlic leaves. This disease occurs during high humidity.
Side effects: This disease reduces yields to fifty percent (50%).
2. Stemphylium leaf blight: Dry leaves from the tip to the stem; The disease occurs during periods of high humidity and fog. Side effects: Reduces yield by up to seventy-five percent (75%).
3. Onion yellow draft virus: This disease causes onions to be mixed in color, green with white or yellow streaks. Onions in large quantities; Side effects: It affects the yield by 80% to 100%.
4. Bulb rot: Caused by fungi. The disease occurs when the onions are ripe, with the soil moist. When the onions are ripe, they should not be watered again.
Typically, onions take 5-6 months from sowing to harvest. You can start harvesting onions after 75% of the necks of onions are broken. After harvesting, you can place it in grades according to the size, color and thickness of the onion neck. Onions with a narrow neck are more durable, with thick necks rot faster.
Make sure the onion neck remains about 2 inches. This helps prevent rapid rot.
How to store onions
After harvesting, store the onions in a bush under the shade and spread them out evenly. You can store onions by wrapping them in bundles and hanging them. Properly stored onions can last up to four months without spoiling, this depends on the type of storage.
Importance of Cultivating onions (Onion cultivation)
“Onions are a little different from other vegetable crops in that it is not easy to miss the market, and if the price is not good you can save for a while to wait for the price to be good.”
The farmer from Oloigeruno village says that although he also produces other crops, he has decided to focus more on onions after discovering the secrets and how to make more profit.
Since he started growing onions 12 years ago, he has managed to make a living, including setting up other projects such as cattle ranching, building a modern house and taking good care of his family. However, he says the biggest problem with onions is diseases and pests. He says it is not very easy to detect the presence of an onion disease immediately.
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