Sesame Cultivation (sesamum indicum) is a widely cultivated crop in Tanzania Lindi, Mtwara, Ruvuma, Pwani, Morogoro, Dodoma, Tanga and lower belt regions in the Rukwa and Mbeya regions. This crop is grown for food and trade. The seeds of this crop have an average oil content of about 45 percent.
Best sesame cultivation step by step
IMPORTANT THINGS TO CONSIDER FOR SESAME SEED PRODUCTION
- Choose a variety of seed that produces high yields and quality, tolerates disease and pests, matures early and produces high fat.
- Select mature seeds together to facilitate harvesting and also to avoid crop losses in the field.
- White sesame seeds are preferred over black varieties.
Sesame seeds need enough nutrients to produce a good crop. To maintain soil fertility, use crop rotation or apply natural fertilizers where necessary.
Weed control with weeds to allow sesame seeds to make better use of moisture and nutrients. Some weeds become hiding places for pests of sesame crops.
DISEASES AND INSECTS
Sesame seeds are attacked by various diseases and pests that can lead to degradation and crop quality. So inspect the sesame cultivation field regularly especially on flowers and pods to see signs of an attack. If there are signs of an attack, take precautionary measures before serious damage occurs in your sesame cultivation.
PREPARATION FOR HARVESTING
- Inspect the field to see if the sesame seeds are ripe.
- Sesame matures, between three and four months from planting depending on the variety.
- Non-branched sesame varieties ripen earlier than those with branched ones.
- It is important to harvest at all times to avoid sesame seeds growing in the field.
KNOW IF SESAME IS READY FOR HARVESTING
– The leaves usually change color from green to yellow and eventually fall off.
– The stems change color from green to brown.
HARVESTING OF SESAME
- Harvest sesame seeds early before the pods are very ripe and begin to crack and release the kernels. Very mature sesame seeds when touched or shaken by the wind crack and release the seeds, a condition that results in significant losses.
- Sesame seeds are small and if they fall to the ground it is difficult to pick them up. Fallen seeds are also difficult to separate from dirt.
- Sesame harvesting involves cutting down pruned plants using hand tools such as swords for cutting stems.
- For sesame varieties with cracked pods, harvesting should be done while the plants are still green to avoid seed loss.
- Harvesting should also be done when there is no wind or hot sun.
- After cutting the stems, wrap them in small luggage and place them in transport containers such as carts, trailers or cars to the drying area.
- Arrange small loads by hanging them in small piles not exceeding eight loads in clean drying areas.
The sesame seeds are dried and wrapped in straw. Bits are placed in a drying frame for two to three weeks depending on the weather. This frame is placed on a canvas or floor to prevent loss of grain due to cracking of the pods.
STORAGE OF SESAME
- Arrange sacks of sesame seeds on top of chaga.
- Arrange alternately to allow air circulation between the bags.
PROCESSING SESAME SEEDS
Sesame seeds are processed to obtain an oil product that is used in various recipes. Oil is extracted using natural methods and by mechanical means.
Natural methods are less effective than those of machine milking, so it is best to use a machine. There are two types of machines used to extract oil; hand machines and those powered by an engine or electric motor. Example of Hand machines mostly used is Bridge machine
The bridge machine is one of the modern machines that can extract sesame oil. These machines are hand-operated and have a fuel capacity of 68 to 72 percent.
It can squeeze 25 kg of sesame seeds in one hour. To get the best results for this machine, it is important that the sesame has a moisture content of between 11 and 13 percent. If the humidity is below that level it is recommended to spray water on the sesame before milking.
SESAME OIL PROCCESSING USING BRIDGE MACHINE
- Sprinkle a little water on the sesame to increase the moisture content to 11 to 13 percent. The oil comes out well at that moisture level.
- Fill the sesame seeds into cloth bags or bags
- Arrange the bags on the cylinder and start rotating the axis until the oil starts to flow through the cylinder holes.
- Allow the oil to continue for a while and then continue to rotate the axis until the oil runs out. If the axis stops rotating it is a sign that the fuel has run out.
- Collect oil, strain and pack in clean boiled bottles. Make sure the bottles are dry and covered.
- Store in a dry, well-ventilated place.
The Ram machine is capable of processing 7 kg of sesame seeds with a efficiency of 57%. The Ram type (BP-30) is capable of extracting 20 liters of oil per day.
SESAME OIL PROCCESSING USING RAM MACHINE
- Dry sesame seeds in the sun by spreading them on galvanized sheets to keep them warm.
- The purpose of drying seeds in the sun is to facilitate the extraction of oil.
- Fill the sesame seeds into the feeding trough
- Tie the barriers (HANDLE) so that the sesame seeds do not come out.
- Lift the blockers to the top to allow the sesame seeds to enter the cylinder.
- Loosen the bottom blockers to allow the piston to push the sesame seeds into the compression area
- Raise the blockers up and down and at the same time continue to fill the sesame seeds into the feeding pad. Lifting too much is a sign that enough motivation has been built up. That pressure will cause the oil to come out.
- When oil starts to loosen the blockers to allow the bolts to come out.
- Strain and store the oil in clean, sealed container.
Advantage of using sesame oil
- High Source of Unsaturated Fats
- Helps in Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Lowers Blood Pressure
- It is commonly used in beauty treatments for the skin
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