Bean cultivation, Beans are a legume crop that is grown for consumption as a vegetable or futari can be as raw beans or dried beans. Its leaves are also fodder for livestock and are also used as a vegetable for humans. In one acre you can get 600 to 1200 kg of beans.
Beans are one of the most cultivated crops and are one of the most profitable crops for farmers in Tanzania, but in terms of good agricultural practices.
Beans are their main source of food, nutrition and income for the family and the Nation. For high yields, it is best to adhere to the best principles of good bean cultivation. High yields and high quality are due to the use of quality seeds. Good quality seed is one of the most important inputs to agriculture. The quality of the seed is required to follow all stages of the production, harvest, transport, packing, packing, distribution, storage and marketing of field seeds.
Declared quality seed is produced by small farmers and groups of small farmers in rural areas, under the supervision of district agricultural consultants.
Beans are the second most important food in Tanzania after corn. The beans can be eaten raw / kicked (green / French beans) and raw or dried after ripening.
Importance of eating Beans in Human Body
Beans are an important source of protein for humans and help the soil in the production of nitrogen from the air through the roots of the beans that interact with rhizobium / ryzobium bacteria in the soil. Nitrogen is essential for the growth and production of corn.
For many years, beans have been grown for home use, but the situation is changing because the market for beans has grown, their price has increased, and the demand for beans has increased. This has led to an increase in the production and commercialization of beans in the country and abroad.
Beans are used as food for humans and their leaves can also be used as food for animals. In human food, beans are used as an ingredient (vegetable) for other foods such as rice or porridge.
Beans are a good source for lowering cholesterol in the body, high cholesterol in the body is a source of many diseases. Beans also help prevent blood sugar levels from spreading suddenly after a meal, which is why they are very important for people with diabetes.
Most bean foods have been shown to lower the risk of heart attack. Recent studies have found that eating beans reduces the risk of cancer, unlike meat, which increases the risk of cancer.
APPROPRIATE CLIMATE FOR BEAN CULTVATION
Bean cultivation thrive/survive in areas with an altitude of 1000 to 2000 meters above sea level. They can also be grown at less than 1000 meters or more than 2000 meters above sea level. Beans need adequate rainfall during the pre-flowering period and the bean pod growth period.
Bean cultivation It does not need a little moisture during the flowering and drying period. Beans are grown in large quantities in MBEYA, IRINGA, KAGERA, KIGOMA, ARUSHA, KILIMANJARO, Morogoro etc.
TYPE OF SOIL SUITABLE FOR CULTIVATING BEANS
It thrives in well-drained, well-drained soil that is well compiled with a pH of 5.5 – 7. It can also grow in a variety of soils.
TYPE OF BETTER BEAN SEEDS FOR BEAN CULTVATION
There are a variety of quality bean seeds for Bean cultivation such as canadian wonder, Tengeru, Uyole, SUA, Ilonga and Lyamungo.
Two varieties of quality bean seeds have been developed at the Uyole Agricultural Research Station in Mbeya Region. The seeds are 16 BILFA and UYOLE 04.
The production of these quality seeds is a long-term effort of the program to produce quality bean seeds with the aim of increasing production and beans being of quality and quality recommended by farmers as well as consumers, farmers prefer disease-resistant, drought-resistant and high-yielding seeds. consumers prefer beans that taste good and ripen easily at affordable prices.
UYOLE 04 seeds crawl, produce medium to large bean-colored beans, are resistant to chronic diseases such as bean rust and anthracnose, ripen quickly when cooked and taste very good.
The sowing time depends on the onset and end of the rainy season, for example in areas where the rains end at the end of the 4th month or the beginning of the 5th month then planting begins in the 3rd month because the growth of these seeds until maturity takes an average of 105 days.
The amount of seed required to plant is 70 – 80 kg per hectare is 200,000 seedlings grow and can produce 1.5 – 1.8 tons per hectare, this seed is best suited for planting in the northern highlands (Mbeya, Iringa, Songea and Rukwa regions) where the ground rises approximately 800 – 2000 meters above sea level and there is frost.
BILPHA 16 SEEDS are bright red mixed with milk as a military garment, the seeds are of medium size, very resistant to diseases, the plants are green with small leaves with 4 – 5 branches the flowers are pink and the pods of the beans become white and when ripe they become milky.
The amount of seed required to plant is 70 – 80 kg per hectare where 200,000 seedlings grow and can produce 1.2 – 1.5 tons per hectare, which is small compared to UYOLE 04, this seed is best suited for planting in the northern highlands (Mbeya regions , Iringa, Songea and Rukwa) where land rises approximately 800 – 2000 meters above sea level and there is frost. And the seeds germinate after 80 – 84 days after planting so they are suitable for areas with short rainfall.
CHARACTERISTICS QUALITY BEANS SEED / SEED QUALITY MEASURES FOR BEAN CULTVATION
– Seed of the same type (realism) – In order to have this quality the inspection must start in the field of seed production.
– Clean seeds – Not mixed with other varieties or crops, weed seeds, not eaten by insects and dirt such as soil and other debris.
– Seeds that mature and dry well – If they are well dried they will not rot and rot, and they germinate well and will not be easily attacked by pests. This allows the seed to retain its quality for a long time.
– Seeds harvested from healthy plants from a field with good yields – Seeds harvested from weak plants cannot germinate well and at the same time their plants become weak.
– Healthy seeds – Seeds that cannot be a source of disease. A piece of unsafe seed should not be used as seed. Diseases can be transmitted through seed if the seed is used.
– Seeds with a germination rate of more than ninety percent (90%).
– The best quality seeds are acceptable (choose the type of seed according to need).
– New (pre-basic / foundation) seeds should not be sown for more than two seasons.
STEPS FOR PLANTING BEANS
- In seed cultivation Plan seed t in well-drained and fertile soils. Sow seeds in areas with an elevation of 400m-1800m from sea level to the southern highlands. Dry areas with short rainfall such as, plant in December to February. Areas with irrigation water plant during the dry season.
- Separate the different types of seeds in a space of not less than 3 meters. Do not sow seeds in a mixture of other crops.
- Beans are planted at the end of the rainy season to avoid raining during the flowering period. They can be planted in February, March, April depending on what month the rains in your area last, so make sure they get at least one month of adequate rainfall.
- Cover your seeds at an angle of 2.5 to 4 cm in the ground depending on the type of soil in your field.
- Beans are planted using seeds that are clean and undamaged by breaking or eaten by insects. Before planting your beans you can treat them using Rhizobia Bacteria where it will reduce the high use of nitrogen fertilizers. Beans should be planted at a distance of 40-60 cm row by row and 15-20 cm stem to stem.
Bean cultivation You can plant in a field scattered with compost. You can also better plant industrial fertilizers such as TSP or Minjingu at a rate of 50-100 kg per acre. When the plant starts flowering you can use N.P.K or SA fertilizer or in small quantities CAN or UREA Note These over-fertilized beans have more leaves than flowers and cause lower yields.
It is advisable to weed the plants before flowering. This activity should be done carefully to protect the plants from damage to the roots as damage of any kind can cause diseases to the plant. It is advisable to plant crops in rotation (crop rotation) to reduce the possibility of weeds and diseases being able to attack the plants.
Weeding should be done as soon as the beans germinate and the field becomes overgrown with weeds. The first weeding can be done Between 8-12 days after the plant has germinated and the second should be done on the 20th and 30th day after the first weeding. To prevent the flowering of your beans from drying out during weeding be sure to avoid weeding during flowering. You can use herbicides like Galex, Stomp, Dual Gold, Sateca
HARVESTING AND PREPARING SEEDS for Bean Cultivation
Harvest beans when they dry. Dry by steaming in the sun, peel, fold and dry again in the sun. You can harvest 600 to 800 kg per acre before analyzing if you follow the principles of good farming practices.
Sift the seeds well by removing dirt, soil, other types of seeds, cracked and weak seeds. Also remove sores with patches and bruises. Make sure the seeds are well dried before storage.
STORAGE OF SEEDS FOR SEED CULTVATION
Clean utensils or warehouses and remove pests. Prevent pests by using natural or industrial pesticides. Use seed preservatives such as Actellic (100 grams of Actellic super Dust per kilogram of bean seed), Murtano (300 grams of Murtano per 100 kg of bean seeds) and other pesticides at the recommended dose.
Keep seeds away from food beans and other foods. Avoid wet areas and leaking roofs and prevent rodents. Do not store the seeds for more than two seasons because after that the germination potential decreases.
MEASURING SEEDS GROWTH ABILITY
Measure germination capacity before planting. Good germination is over ninety percent (90%). Plant 100 seeds in each of the three similar and moist parts. After ten days inspect the well-grown seedlings and count them.
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